1. Study the list of words below. Classify them according to the form and meaning of the morpheme ‘-er’ and its variant in case of (i) and ‘-en’ in case of (ii). What are the morpheme –er and –en called? Give the meaning of different ‘–er’s and ‘–en’s by giving at least two more examples of words that contain the same bound morpheme with the same meaning.
(i) teacher, mower, taller, either, greener, higher, lower, sweeter, other, river, never, farmer, caller, finger, operator, cover, sailor, shorter
(ii) given, soften, even, eaten, harden, often, sweeten, broken, lengthen, strengthen, sudden, widen, open, oven, taken,
2a. Draw phrase structure tree for the following sentences:
(i). The knife which my mother bought yesterday fell down from his hand.
(ii) Abhay thought that he will faint instantly.
2b. Represent the sentences using X-bar schema. Discuss how you are making a distinction between argument of adjuncts in the X-bar schema representation.
3. Circle the odd word in each case:
(i) recharge retry reward repay
(ii) disgusted disoriented dislocated displaced
(iii) thrifty bushy dirty thirty
(iv) cakes chews cleans cares
4. Mark the Noun group and Verb group in the following text:
[Remember pronoun is also a kind of noun.]
Example: [The postoffice]NG [is situated]VG near [the bus-stop]NG.
Tommy crawled down from the window-seat and ran to the door. He opened it with a bang. The wind blew fiercely and snatched the newly recovered mail from Mrs. Pennington's hands.
Can you label the part of speech of the words which are left in the sentences above after doing the exercise?
5. Examine the following sentences from Malay/Indonesian languages.
1. ini kuda ‘This is a horse’
2. ini Ali. ‘This is Ali’
3. Ali bagus ‘Ali is good’
4. Ali mejual kuda itu ‘Ali sells that horse’
5. kuda Ali bagus ‘Ali’s horse is good’
6. jualan ini bagus ‘This merchandise is good’
7. kuda ini dijual oleh Ali ‘This horse is sold by Ali’
8. Ali penjual kain ‘Ali is a cloth seller’
A. Translate into English:
kuda bagus ini kuda Ali – This good horse is Ali’s horse
B. Write the logic (or thinking steps) that you have followed to decide the translation.
6a. Read the following passage and translate the passage in your mother tongue:
At high noon a large spaceship floated gently down out of a blue sky to land on the front lawn of the White House. It rested motionless for the next five hours while the White House hummed with activity. The President was evacuated and then the military moved in with troops, tanks and helicopters. Stealth fighters roared overhead. Both Congress and the United Nations called emergency sessions as a frightened world held its breath.
b. State, with examples, the issues that you have observed while translating the passage.